Quantification of S100B immunoreactive cells after 28 day recovery following TBI. Mice were subjected to TBI or sham procedure. At 3 hr and 9 hr following TBI, mice were injected with Mzc (5 mg/kg/dose) or saline diluent (VEH). After 28 day recovery, S100B immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus were quantified in sham controls (A), TBI treated with saline vehicle (B) and TBI treated with Mzc (C). Representative sections show an increase in the injured animals (B) which was prevented by treatment with Mzc (C). Insets (A-C) show high power image of hippocampal neuronal layer. Quantification of the digitized images (D) shows a reduction in astrocyte activation in the Mzc-treated group. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M of n = 5–7 animals per group. #P < 0.001 vs TBI-Veh by ANOVA. Bar = 100 μm.