MCP-1 is increased in a time-dependent manner in serum and brain after LPS treatment. C57Bl/6 mice were injected i.p. with LPS, and serum and brain frontal cortex were collected at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 hours after LPS treatment. The 0 hr time point represents saline-injected controls. MCP-1 protein levels were measured in serum (A) and brain (B) as described in Methods. Values are represented as mean ± SEM of duplicate determinations per sample and are pooled from two independent experiments, n = 2–9 mice per time point. * represents significant difference from 0 hr control, p < 0.05.