Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α are decreased in brains of MCP-1-/- mice after LPS treatment. MCP-1+/+ or MCP-1-/- mice were injected i.p. with LPS or saline, and brains were removed and dissected 6 hours later. IL-1β (A) and TNF-α(B) levels in entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, and hippocampus supernatants were measured by MSD as described in Methods. Values are represented as mean ± SEM of duplicate determinations and are pooled from two independent experiments, n = 5–11 mice per group. ** represents significant difference between LPS-treated MCP-1+/+ mice and LPS-treated MCP-1-/- mice, p < 0.001; # represents significant difference between saline-treated MCP-1+/+ mice and LPS-treated MCP-1+/+ mice, p < 0.001; and ≠ represents significant difference between saline-treated MCP-1-/- mice and LPS-treated MCP-1-/- mice, p < 0.05.