Pioglitazone activates PPAR-γ and enhances PI3K/Akt activity. Rat mesencephalic cultures (2 × 106 cells/well) were treated with pioglitazone (10 μM) only, or 1 hr before LPS (1 μg/ml) exposure. PPAR-γ activation was assessed after 10 min, and P13K and Akt were assessed after 60 min. PPAR-γ activation, PI3K and Akt expression were observed in the pioglitazone-treated cultures, compared to control and LPS-only groups. Data presented are representative of three independent experiments (n = 3). (*p < 0.05 vs. control, #p < 0.05 vs. LPS, ##p < 0.01 vs. LPS).