The effects of BDV infection on expression of cytokines and chemokines in astrocyte or mixed cultures. Supernatants were analysed for cytokine/chemokine protein contents using the rat 23 cytokines/chemokines LINCOplex assay. Levels of cytokines and chemokines in media samples from BDV-infected cultures normalized to the values in obtained from respective mock-infected sister cultures. Media samples were collected from n = 6 mixed astrocyte/neuron/microglia cultures at 12–14 d.p.i. and from n = 4 persistently infected astrocyte cultures at 7–10 days after passage.