Bioluminescence imaging of GFAP-dependent transcription in EAE. EAE was induced in GFAP-luc mice with MOG35–55 emulsified in CFA plus pertussis toxin and bioluminescence was recorded in living mice injected with luciferin (150 mg/kg) 1 day before (-1) and at indicated time points after immunization. (a) Time course of bioluminescence recorded in a representative mouse. (b) Bioluminescence was expressed as fold induction and plotted with clinical score (n = 23). (c) Time course of EAE-associated neuropathology. GFAP-luc mice were sacrificed at indicated time points. Neuroinflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry as a function of astrogliosis (GFAP), microgliosis (CD68) and T lymphocyte infiltration (CD4). Scale bar = 100 μm.