Time-lapse imaging reveals DAF reduces NaCN-induced dendritic spine loss. Primary cortical neurons were in ACF buffer with 5% CO2 at 37°C for 2 hours before experiment. (a) GFP positive neuron images represent several time points during exposure to 1.5 mM NaCN with and without DAF. Arrow shows spine loss. (b) Images were analyzed by counting dendritic spines prior to and 1 hour after NaCN treatment. Scale bar = 2 μm. (one-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01).