Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunolabeling in spinal cord ventral horn. Normal GFAP immunolabeling on the side contralateral to the lesion (A). Observe the increase in labeling on the ipsilateral side after avulsion alone (B). The combination of VRA and EAE (C and D) resulted in decreased astroglial reaction. (E) Graph representing quantification of immunolabeling for all groups (ipsi and contralateral sides shown separately). (** = p < 0.01). Scale bar = 50 μm.