Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient demographics and clinical characteristics on admission according to prehospital fluid resuscitation treatment groups.

From: Prehospital resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran modulates inflammatory, coagulation and endothelial activation marker profiles in severe traumatic brain injured patients

Variables Resuscitation Group PValue
  HSD NS  
Demographics    
   No. of Patients, n 30 35  
   Age, yrs 41.8 ± 17.4 42.8 ± 18.8 0.85a
   Sex Ratio (M/F) 19/11 25/10 0.79c
Vital signs    
   GCS on Admission 5.6 ± 2.8 5.9 ± 2.6 0.53b
   SBP, mm Hg 133.3 ± 16.2 130.8 ± 28.3 0.83a
   ISS 34.9 ± 9.5 31.7 ± 14.6 0.19b
   APACHE II 12.5 ± 5.9 14.8 ± 5.1 0.24b
   SOFA 4.9 ± 1.7 4.9 ± 2.5 0.72b
   MODS 3.8 ± 1.5 5.0 ± 3.3 0.64b
Laboratory Values    
   Hb, g/dL 11.3 ± 1.6 11.9 ± 2.1 0.39a
   Hct, % 32.9 ± 5.0 34.7 ± 5.9 0.40a
   Plt, 109/L 206.2 ± 41.5 219.5 ± 56.4 0.40a
   pH 7.34 ± 0.06 7.33 ± 0.05 0.69b
   BE, mEq/L -2.1 ± 3.2 -2.4 ± 3.7 0.76a
   aPTT, s 26.2 ± 5.3 24.4 ± 6.1 0.63a
   INR 1.08 ± 0.21 1.12 ± 0.23 0.25b
   Na, mmol/L 146.9 ± 4.5 143.5 ± 5.2 0.03 a
   Cl, mmol/L 115.4 ± 5.0 111.9 ± 7.0 0.07a
   Osmolality, mOsm/kg 316.0 ± 20.1 306.7 ± 29.1 0.05 a
Fluids    
   Total fluids prehospital, L 0.4 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.1 0.83a
   Total fluids in-hospital, L 5.4 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 2.5 0.96a
Outcomes    
   GOS 3.7 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.5 0.81b
   Length of stay, d 14.1 ± 13.6 14.7 ± 12.5 0.90a
   Mechanical Ventilation, d 6.6 ± 5.2 9.1 ± 5.8 0.71a
   Mortality, n (%) 4 (13.3) 6 (17.1) 0.67c
  1. Abbreviations (normal ranges): NS, normal saline; HSD, hypertonic saline plus dextran; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ISS, Injury Severity Score; APACHE II, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; MODS, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score; Hb, hemoglobin (12-18); Hct, hematocrit (37-52); Plt, platelets (130-400); aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time (25-35 s); INR, International Normalized Ratio (0.8-1.2); BE, base excess (-2/+2); pH (7.35-7.45); GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale score.
  2. Unless otherwise stated, results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD); statistical significance of differences between resuscitation treatment groups were assessed with at-test, bMann-Whitney U-test, or cChi-square test as appropriate, with significance set at P < .05.