Klf4 expression in vivo upon LPS administration. Immunoblot and immunohistochemistry analysis of Klf4 expression in BALB/c mice brains upon LPS administration. (A) There are significant increases in Klf4 expression at different time points compared to control brain. (B) There is a significant increase in pNF-κB levels upon LPS administration in a time-dependent manner compared to control brain. The graphs represent pNF-κB and Klf4 protein levels in brains of LPS-treated mice relative to control mouse brain. *, **, Statistical differences in comparison to control values (* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01). (C) Fluorescent microscopy images of Klf4 expression in microglial cells in brain cortices of control and LPS-treated mice. Klf4 (FITC, green) co-localizes with Iba1- (Alexa Fluor 594, red) positive microglial cells at 12 h and 48 h after LPS administration. Co-localization is shown by arrows in the merged images. Inset. The inset depicts high resolution confocal images of Klf4 and Iba1 co-localization (yellow) in single cells at the 12 h and 48 h time point. Data represent groups of 3 animals per treatment. Scale bar: 50 μm.