β-adrenoceptor activation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response before and after OGD in murine hippocampal slice cultures. A. Mean concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in culture medium at 12 and 24 h during 24 h of exposure to LPS (1 μg/ml) +/- co-incubation with β1-agonist dobutamine (50 μM) or β2-agonist terbutaline (50 μM): only LPS (triangle), LPS+ dobutamine (circle), LPS + terbutaline, (square). Far right, mean concentrations of MCP-1 at 24 and 48 h following 15 min OGD with pre-exposure to LPS for 24 h. N = 4 per experimental group at each time point. Error bars denote 1 SEM. Levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 were decreased by dobutamine and terbutaline (p < 0.01 respectively) during LPS exposure as where levels of MCP-1 following LPS+OGD (p < 0.01). Repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni.B. F4/80 stained hippocampal slices illustrating microglial morphology. Immunohistochemistry was performed at 48 h after 15 min OGD with pre-exposure to LPS (1 μg/ml) for 24 h. (1) 24 h LPS + 15 min OGD, (2) 24 h LPS + β1-agonist dobutamine (50 μM) + 15 min OGD. Bars in 1 and 2 = 400 μm.