ROS drive cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in virus-infected microglia. Microglial cell cultures were pre-treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitors DPI or APO for 1 h prior to a 5 h exposure to HSV. Following viral infection, RNA was extracted and cDNA synthesized to assess mRNA expression through quantitative real-time PCR for A) TNF-α; B) IL-1β; C) CCL2; and D) CXCL10. mRNA levels were normalized to the housekeeping gene HPRT and are presented as fold induction over uninfected controls. Data shown are representative of three individual experiments using microglial cells obtained from different animals.