Curcumin reduces microglial migration. (A, B) Scratch assays in BV-2 microglia treated with solvent control, 20 μM curcumin, 100 ng/ml LPS, or 20 μM curcumin + 100 ng/ml LPS for 12 hours. (A) Micrographs from one representative experiment out of five independent experiments are shown. (B) Results of scratch assayss are calculated mean values ± SEM from five independent experiments. (C) Transwell chamber migration of BV-2 microglial cells treated with solvent control, 20 μM curcumin, 100 ng/ml LPS, or 20 μM curcumin + 100 ng/ml LPS for 24 hours. The absolute number of migrating cells was counted in the lower chamber and mean values ± SEM are displayed. p ≤ 0.05 for curcumin vs. control, and # p ≤ 0.05 for curcumin + LPS vs. LPS, Student's t test.