Number, intensity and mRNA expression in TNF-α-positive AMC after different treatments. Quantitative analysis shows that the number of TNF-α-positive AMC decreased in rats injected with DMS+LPS when compared to that in rats injected with LPS alone (A). The intensity of TNF-α immunofluorescence is decreased in rats injected with DMS+LPS when compared to that in rats injected with LPS alone (B). RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that TNF-α mRNA expression is increased about 50 fold in primary microglial cells in vitro treated with LPS, and that concomitant treatment with DMS prevented this increase in TNF-α (C). Data are presented as mean ± S.E, Control vs LPS, **P < 0.01.