Expression of activation markers (GFAP for astrocytes and Iba1 for microglia) and Aβ
in astrocytes and in microglial BV-2 cells, observed by double-fluorescence. Confocal microscope observation was performed as described under in Methods. Cultured astrocytes were incubated with anti-GFAP and anti-Aβ42 primary antibodies (A), and the microglial BV-2 cells were incubated with anti-Iba1 and anti-Aβ42 primary antibodies (B). Fluorescence was developed using Alexa 568-conjugated anti-rabbit and Alexa 488-conjugated anti-mouse secondary antibodies. Images of astrocytes double-labeled with GFAP (red) and Aβ42 (green) antibodies show the fluorescent antibody staining separately and merged. Images of microglial BV-2 cells double-labeled with Iba1 (red) and Aβ42 (green) antibodies show the fluorescent antibody staining separately and merged.