Ventricular enlargement. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles following TAI and TAI with hypoxia (TAI+Hx) was quantified by expressing the ventricle size as percentage of the entire brain section (A), at coronal plane of +1.0 mm to bregma in accordance with rat atlas by Paxinos and Watson . Coronal sections of (B) sham, (C) TAI alone and (D) TAI+Hx taken at +1 mm to bregma at 1 day after injury. * indicates significant differences to sham group. Data shown as mean ± SEM, n = 6 per group per time point. Data was analysed by 1-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test, with a p-value of < 0.05 considered significant.