Cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF are increased in rats after traumatic axonal injury with additional hypoxia. The concentration (pg/mg protein) of cytokines (A) IL-6, (B) IL-1β, (C) TNF, (D) IL-2, (E) IL-4 and (F) IL-10 was measured in cortical homogenates of sham (S), TAI alone, and TAI with hypoxia (TAI+Hx) animals by multiplex assay over 4 days. * indicates significant differences between groups. Note the significant increases of IL-6 and IL-1β in TAI+Hx vs TAI rats. TNF did not increase after TAI alone, and was only evident at 2 h in TAI+Hx rats. Data shown as mean ± SEM, n = 6 per group per time point. Data was analysed by 1-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test, with a p-value of < 0.05 considered significant.