Effect of BBI on LPS-induced cell aggregation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophages were preincubated with or without BBI (100 μg/mL) for 24 h and then treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) for an additional 24 h. Cells were washed with serum-free medium and DCFH2DA was then added to the cultures, which were further incubated at 37°C for 30 min. ROS production in macrophages was examined using a fluorescence microscope (magnification: х100). Macrophage aggregation was assessed using a phase contrast microscope. Images presented are representative of three independent experiments. Values on the images indicate fluorescence intensity, as quantified by Image J 1.43.