Effects of betaine on LPS-induced increases in mRNA expression levels for GAT2. Time-dependent changes in GAT2 mRNA expression in hippocampus 6, 9, 24, and 48 hr after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) are shown in the upper panel (A). Mice were treated with betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c.) 24 hr before and immediately before LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), and sacrificed 24 hr after LPS injection. mRNA levels in hippocampus were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The level of each mRNA was normalized to the mRNA level of β-actin as an endogenous control. Values are shown as the mean ± S.E.M. for 4-7 mice, as shown in parentheses. Significance levels: *p < 0.05 vs. sham control, #p < 0.05 vs. LPS alone (unpaired t-test).