Effect of low dose MDMA (3 mg/kg, i.p.) on (A) IL-1β and (B) IL-1ra levels and IL-1RI expression in the membrane (C) and soluble (D) fractions of frontal cortex. MDMA produced 1 h later an increase in IL-1β levels (A) and 96 h later an increase in IL-1ra (B). IL-1RI expression was unaltered in the membrane fraction (C) but increased in the soluble fraction 3 h, 6 h and 96 h after MDMA (D). (E) and (F) are representative images from the Western blots of membrane (E) and soluble (F) fractions of frontal cortex. Results shown as mean ± s.e.mean, n = 4-8. Different from saline-treated controls: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Different from neurotoxic MDMA: ΔP < 0.01, ΔΔP < 0.001. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test.