Effect of pretreatment with IL-1β on MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced neurotoxicity in frontal cortex 7 days later. IL-1β (2.5 pg, intracortical) given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA prevented the loss of 5-HT transporters in the ipsilateral (A) but not in the contralateral (B) frontal cortex. Results shown as mean ± s.e.mean, n = 4-7. Different from saline-treated controls: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Different from neurotoxic MDMA: ΔP < 0.05. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test.