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Table 1 Effect of LPS on the release of cytokines by BMECs.

From: Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced transcellular transport of HIV-1 across the blood-brain barrier is mediated by luminal microvessel IL-6 and GM-CSF

  Treatment
Cytokine (pg/mL) Control LPS 100 μg/mL
GM-CSF 4.8 ± 3.1 160.0 ± 21.7**
IFN-γ 4.4 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 0.6*
IL-1α N.D. N.D.
IL-1β N.D. N.D.
IL-2 1.1 ± 0.5 N.D.
IL-4 0.9 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2
IL-6 6.7 ± 1.1 16.3 ± 2.3**
IL-10 2.3 ± 1.1 N.D.
IL-12 (p70) 1.6 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.3
TNF-α 0.5 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.2
  1. BMECs were exposed to LPS (100 μg/mL) for 4 hr. Mean ± SEM (n = 7). N.D.: Not Detected. Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 vs control.