LPS-stimulated phagocytosis requires p38 activation. (A) Representative photomicrographs depict involvement of p38 signaling in LPS-induced phagocytosis. (B) Microglial cells were treated with LPS (100 ng/ml). Application of a p38 inhibitor, SB239063 (20 μM), significantly inhibited LPS-induced phagocytosis. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3) and as a percentage of control (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01, using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test). Scale bar 10 μm.