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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and correlations with cognitive impairment (n = 41)

From: The relationship between indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and post-stroke cognitive impairment

  MEAN ± SD OR % RANGE r- OR F* VALUE P-VALUE
Age 72.3 ± 12.2 years 39-91 years -0.27 0.08
Gender 53.7% male   1.83 0.18
MMSE 25.6 ± 4.1 13-30 - -
NIHSS 7.27 ± 5.55 0-21 -0.08 0.63
CES-D 13.8 ± 12.8 0-48 -0.09 0.59
History of Depression 7.3%   0.35 0.56
Living Alone 24.4%   0.06 0.81
Level of Education > high school 46.3%   6.64 0.01
Time Since Stroke 9.17 ± 5.03 days 4-26 days -0.34 0.03
Cerebrovascular Risk Factors     
   Hypertension 85.4%   4.53 0.04
    Diabetes 26.8%   0.21 0.65
    Hyperlipidemia 34.1%   0.41 0.52
    Obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) 31.7%   2.17 0.15
    Smoking 22.0%   0.10 0.75
    Total number risk factors 2.15 ± 1.28 0-5 -0.21 0.19
Lesion Volume (cm3) 31.72 ± 55.09 0.250 -287.58 -0.05 0.76
K/T ratio 67.40 ± 42.46 14.04-203.75 -0.33 0.04
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; CES-D, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; BMI, body mass index; K/T ratio, Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio
  2. *r or F values and their corresponding p-values reflect the results of bivariate Pearson correlations with sMMSE scores for continuous variables and ANOVA between sMMSE scores -for categorical variables; values reflect the mean ± SD of the detectable samples in each group.