DENV-3 infection induces cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL2) in brain of control mice and of mice infected by the intracranial route with 4 × 10
3 PFU of DENV-3 (n = 9, for each time point). Infected mice exhibit high levels of cytokines and chemokines during infection when compared with control animals. Data expressed as mean ± SEM. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05.