Cytokine mRNA expression patterns in immature and juvenile hippocampus after KA-induced SE. Relative quantification of IL-1β (A), TNF-α (B), IL-10 (C), MMP-9 (D), GDNF (E), IFN-γ (F), and TGF-β1 (G) mRNA expression 4, 8 and 24 h after KA-injection in P9 and P21 rat hippocampi, and 3 d after KA-injection in P21 rat hippocampi (H) measured with real-time PCR. Note the significant increases from control levels in both age groups, more pronounced and faster induction of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA expression in P21 compared to P9 rats, and the increase in GDNF expression only in P21 rats. Note also the return of cytokine mRNA expression in P21 rats to control levels 3 d after KA injection. Data are given as mean ± S.E.M. *p < 0.05, compared to age-matched control (one-way ANOVA); **p < 0.01, compared to age-matched control (one-way ANOVA). ***p < 0.001, compared to age-matched control (one-way ANOVA); ##p < 0.01, compared to the other age at the same time-point (two-way ANOVA); ###p < 0.001, compared to the other age at the same time-point (two-way ANOVA). Abbreviations: C, control; P, postnatal.