CXCL1 increases in rat brain after GD-induced SE. Concentrations of CXCL1 peak at 6 hours in the piriform cortex (solid gray line) and 12 hours in the hippocampus (solid black line) and thalamus (open gray line). Data are given as pg/ml of tissue lysate and reported as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with a post-hoc Dunnett's analysis comparing to vehicle control. (## p < 0.01 hippocampus, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 piriform cortex, $$ p < 0.01 thalamus).