CXCL1 is expressed in neurons and, to a much lesser extent, in endothelial cells after GD-induced SE. Prominent CXCL1 (A-I, green) immunolabeling is present in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus 12 hours after GD-induced SE (A, B & C; left). CXCL1 is absent in vehicle controls of these same regions (A, B & C; right). In the piriform cortex (A), labeling is observed primarily in layers II and III. In the hippocampus (B), labeling was primarily confined to the CA3 pyramidal layer and granular layer of the dentate gyrus (GrDG) but not evident in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (PoDG). CXCL1 was located to the laterodorsal and lateral posterior nuclei of the thalamus (C). Labeling was absent in the secondary controls for both 12-hour GD-exposed (D) and vehicle control tissues (E), exemplified by the piriform cortex. Neurons (F, red) and CXCL1 were often found to co-localize (F, yellow). Co-localization was not observed in hypertrophic astrocytes (G, red) or activated microglia (H, red) and was limited in endothelial cells (I, yellow). DAPI (A-I, blue) was used to label the nuclei of each cell. Scale bar: 250 μm (A-E), 50 μm and 20 μm (F-I) for regular and confocal fluorescent microscopy respectively; n = 7 for 12-hour, n = 4 for vehicle controls.