MIP-1α is primarily expressed by neurons and dystrophic microglia after GD-induced SE. MIP-1α immunolabeling (A-G, green) is present in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus 12 hours after GD-induced SE (A, B & C; left) but absent in vehicle controls of these same regions (A, B & C; right). In the piriform cortex (A), labeling is observed primarily in layers II and III. In the hippocampus (B), labeling was less robust and found primarily in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers as well as in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (PoDG) but not the granular layer of the dentate gyrus (GrDG). MIP-1α labeling was also less robust in the thalamus (C) and was found primarily in the laterodorsal and lateral posterior nuclei. Neurons (D, red) and MIP-1α frequently co-localized (D, yellow), while no co-localization with astrocytes (E, red) was observed. MIP-1α was primarily expressed by microglia with a dystrophic morphology (F, red). Limited co-localization was observed in endothelial cells (G, red). Scale bar: 250 μm (A-C), 50 μm and 10 μm (D-F) for regular and confocal fluorescent microscopy respectively; n = 9 for 12-hour and n = 4 for vehicle controls.