Effect of S. suis and TNFα on mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Quantitative real time-PCR analysing the effect of S. suis strain 10 (MOI 10), S. suis strain 10 Δcps (MOI 10) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA expression by porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells (PCPECs). Cells had been cultured on Transwell filters in the inverted system. Bacteria were added to the basolateral side (upper compartment) of the inverted cell cultures. TNFα stimulation was performed from basolateral and apical side. -ΔΔCT values are based on β-actin standardization as well as on comparison to unstimulated control cells. Positive -ΔΔCT values indicate an mRNA upregulation. Results are presented as means ± SD for at least 3 independent experiments. #, P value of < 0.01 compared to bacteria-stimulated PCPECs, * P value of < 0.05 compared to S. suis strain 10.