GCSF with sustained activity attenuates inflammation in spinal cord in mutant SOD1 mice in vivo. Spinal cord sections were analyzed after long-term pegfilgrastim treatment from the end stage mutant SOD1 mice. The neuronal survival was decreased in mutant SOD1 mice compared to wt mice (A), determined from the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Long-term pegfilgrastim treatment did not notably rescue the cells from neurodegeneration in the spinal cord as determined with Map2, NeuN and ChAT immunostaining (3A and 3B, n = 5). However, when the inflammation status was analyzed from the same mice, long-term pegfilgrastim treatment decreased the inflammation in the spinal cord as determined with GFAP and Iba-1 immunostaining (A and B, p <0.05 and p <0.01 respectively, n = 5). The quantitation in (B) for Map2, NeuN, ChAT, GFAP and Iba-1 is shown as immunoreactive area in fold of wt mice spinal cord sections. The scale bar is 50 μm.