Effect of GSNO and SIN-1 on levels of TBARS in plasma and on the expression of 4-HNE and ferritin in the traumatic penumbra region at 4 h after TBI. Levels of TBARS were measured in plasma using TBARS assay kit. While GSNO treatment of TBI decreased, the SIN-1 treatment increased the levels of TBARS (A). TBARS results are expressed as nmol/ml plasma, and data are presented as mean ± SD of triplicate determinations from five different experiments. ***p < 0.001 vs. Control, Sham, GSNO, +p < 0.05 vs. TBI. The expression of 4-HNE (B) and ferritin (C) was determined using IHC. Photomicrographs show enhanced reaction of both 4-HNE and ferritin in the traumatic penumbra compared to GSNO group. Sham brain does not show significant number of 4-HNE or ferritin-positive cells. Photomicrographs are representative of n = 3 in each group.