Effect of GSNO and SIN-1on reduction of mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in brain at 24 h and 14
th day after TBI. RNA was isolated from Sham, TBI, GSNO and SIN-1 treated traumatic penumbra region at 24 h (A) and 14th day (B) after TBI. Levels of ICAM-1 were determined by RT-PCR and normalized with β-actin. While GSNO treatment decreased, SIN-1 treatment increased ICAM-1 levels at both 24 h (A) and 14 days (B). Data are presented as mean ± SD (fold change) of duplicate determinations from three different experiments. ***p < 0.001 vs. Sham and GSNO, +++p < 0.001 vs. TBI.