Skip to main content

Table 2 Serological analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi in Alzheimer disease

From: Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria

Authors N Mat Meth AD CTRL Cult
Pappolla et al., 1989 [103] 47 CSF ELISA 2/16 2/31 Nd
Gutacker et al., 1998 [104] 27 Bl, ELISA, Wbl 1/27   Nd
Miklossy, 1993 and Miklossy et al., 2004 [70, 85] 7 Bl, CSF ELISA, IFAT, Wbl 2/4 0/3 +
Miklossy, 1993 [70] 1 Bl ELISA 1/1   Nd
Meer-Scherrer et al., 2006[100] 1 Bl ELISA, Wbl 1/1   Nd
MacDonald, 2006 [101, 102] 1 Bl ELISA, Wbl 1/1   Nd
Galbussera et al., 2008 [106] 98 Bl ELFA 1(+/-)/50 0/48 Nd
  1. Total: Borrelia burgdorferi serology
  2. Blood:N = 135, AD: 7/84 (8.3%), CTRL: 0/51, (0%) "P = 0.2581, OR = 4.5, CI = 0.5-208
  3. Blood & CSFN = 182, AD: 9/100 (9%), CTRL: 2/82 (2.43%), P = 0.1147, OR = 3.95, CI = 0.78-38
  4. Data reviewed in the literature on the serological detection of B. burgdorferi specific antibodies in Alzheimer's disease. There is no statistically significant difference between AD and controls. The frequency of positive B. burgdorferi serology is more than eight times higher in the blood (7/84 versus 0/51) and almost four times higher when taken together blood and CSF (4.3% versus 2.5%) in AD compared to controls. The Odds ratio values (4.5 and 3.95) indicate that positive B. burgdorferi serology represents a risk for AD. N = total number of cases investigated, AD = Alzheimer disease, CTRL = control, Mat = material, Meth = methods, Cult = culture, AD = Number of AD cases with positive serology to B. burgdorferi /number of AD cases analyzed, CTRL = Number of AD cases with positive serology to B. burgdorferi /number of control cases analyzed, Bl = blood, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, Wbl = Western blot, IFAT = Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Test, ELISA = Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay, ELFA = Enzyme-Linked Fluorescence Assay, P = exact value of the significance calculated by the Fischer test, OR = Odds Ratio, CI = 95% confidence interval, + = positive, Nd = not done, " = the number of 0 positive control was changed to 1 in order to calculate the exact OR and CI values.