Loss of astrocytes and reduced expression of GLT-1 and Kir4.1 in injured spinal cords. (A, D) Sections from intact and P1 areas at the indicated times after injury were stained with NeuN/GFAP (A), and GLT-1 or Kir4.1 (D) antibodies. Right panels in (A) and lower panels in (D) are higher magnification images of indicated regions in the left and upper panels, respectively. (B, C) Spinal cord tissues (2 mm in length around the contusion center) were obtained at the indicated times after SCI, and total RNA was prepared and analyzed by RT-PCR (B) or q-PCR (C) as described in Materials and Methods. Values in (C) are means ± SEMs of five animals. (D) The white arrow represents neuronal cell body-like morphology. Data shown are representative of three independent experiments. Scale bars: 200 μm (left panels in A and upper panels in D), 10 μm (right panels in A), and 50 μm (lower panels in D).