Effects of indomethacin and Nogo-A antisense administration on brain edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Animals were divided into five groups: neither TBI nor drug (sham); TBI and Nogo-A irrelevant control oligonucleotide (TBI + Irr); TBI and Nogo-A antisense oligonucleotide (TBI + Nogo-A antisense); TBI and solvent vehicle (75% alcohol) (TBI + vehicle); and TBI combined with indomethacin injection (TBI + indomethacin). Bars represent the means ± SEM values (n = 4). *P <0.05 was considered significantly different from the sham values using the Mann–Whitney U test; #P <0.05 was considered significantly different from the TBI values using the Mann–Whitney U test. SEM, standard error of the mean; TBI, traumatic brain injury.