Anti-miR-32 transfection rescues tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) protein expression in CHME3 cells. (a) Transfection efficiency of anti-miR, by using Cy3-labeled anti-miR as negative control. (b) Quantitative (q)PCR analysis of cellular miR-32 level after anti-miR-32 transfection, to confirm the suppression of miR-32. The expression level of miR-32 decreased by 40% in cells transfected with anti-miR-32; compared to cells transfected with scrambled anti-miR negative control (*P ≤ 0.05). (c) Western blot analysis of TRAF3 in CHME3 cells after anti-miR-32 transfection, showing the recovery of TRAF3 expression level in cells treated with anti-miR-32 and anti-miR-32 plus Tat. Anti-miR-32 transfection was performed at a concentration of 100 pmol/l. After 24 hours of anti-miR-32 transfection, a set of transfected cells were treated with 500 ng/ml Tat C protein to augment the cellular expression level of miR-32. (d) Densitometry analysis of TRAF3 normalized to β-tubulin. There was a significant (**P ≤ 0.005) recovery of TRAF3 expression level.