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Table 3 Comparison of clinical features according the patients' AQP4-Ab serostatus.

From: Contrasting disease patterns in seropositive and seronegative neuromyelitis optica: A multicentre study of 175 patients

  Seropositive Seronegative p-level
Relapsing course    
   Total cohort 127/137 (92.7%) 29/38 (76.3%) p < 0.008
Patients meeting Wingerchuk's 2006 criteria 92/92 (100%) 22/27 (81.5%) p < 0.0005
Relapse ratio, ON/MY* 0.85; N = 86 1; N = 25 n.s.§
Signs of-existing autoimmunity    
   Total cohort 76/130 (58.5%) 3/35 (8.6%) p < 0.00001
Patients meeting Wingerchuk's 2006 Criteria 48/86 (55.8%) 3/25 (12%) P < 0.00009
   Co-existing autoimmune disorders 31/130 (23.8%) 2/35 (5.7%) p < 0.017
   Co-existing auto-antibodies only†† 45/97(46.4%) 1/30 (3.3%) p < 0.00001
CSF-restricted OCB at first LP    
   All patients 30/110 (27.9%) 12/34 (35.3%) n.s.
Patients meeting Wingerchuk's 2006 criteria 19/74 (25.7%) 10/26 (38.5%) n.s.
Median CSF white cell count at first LP    
   All patients 7 (0-750; N = 106) 7.5 (0-220; N = 30) n.s.§
Patients meeting Wingerchuk's 2006 Criteria 7.5 (0-750; N = 68) 9 (1-220; N = 23) n.s.§
Preceding infections at least once# 27/92 (29.3%) 5/28 (17.9%) n.s.
Time to diagnosis of NMO (months)   11 (0-255; N = 29) p < 0.029§
  1. *Only patients with a history of both ON and MY are considered (all meeting Wingerchuk's 2006 criteria). Diagnoses included autoimmune thyroiditis (N = 10), systemic lupus erythematosus (8), acetylcholine receptor-antibody positive myasthenia gravis (4) [74], cutaneous lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disorder, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, celiac disease, psoriasis, bullous pemphigoid, pyoderma gangrenosum, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, sarcoidosis, HLAB27 positive ankylosing spondylitis with sacroileitis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and rheumatoid arthritis. ††In the absence of an established autoimmune disorder; including anti-nuclear antibodies (counted only if ≥ 1:240), antibodies to double stranded DNA, antibodies to single stranded DNA, anti-histone antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies, anti-Scl70 antibodies, anti-SS/A antibodies, anti-SS/B antibodies, anti-phospholipid antibodies, MPO-specific perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA), lactoferrin-specific pANCA, pANCA of unknown specificity, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-mitochondrial antibodies, anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and rheumatoid factor. #Preceding the first attack or preceding relapse at least once. Fisher's exact test (2-tailed). §Mann Whitney U test. CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; LP = lumbar puncture; MY = myelitis; N = number of patients (not all data were available from all patients); n.s. = not significant; OCB = oligoclonal bands; ON = optic neuritis; WCC = white cell count.