Cytokine TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B), IL-6 (C) and nerve growth factor (NGF) (D) levels in hindpaw skin were measured by EIA assay at four weeks post-fracture. Rats were treated with vehicle (FX, n = 16) or the NK1 receptor antagonist LY303870 (20 mg/kg i.p. daily for 8 days just prior to cast removal, FX + LY303870, n = 15). Fracture induced an increase in all inflammatory mediators compared to controls and this was blocked in the LY303870-treated fractured rats. Data are expressed as mean values (pg/mg protein) ± standard error (SE). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 vs. untreated controls (n = 13), ##
P < 0.01 and ###
P < 0.001 for FX + LY303870 vs. fracture.