Activation of glial cells following LPS (i.p.) injection and suppression by Pls in the murine CA1 region of the hippocampus. A, Iba-1-positive microglia (green) and GFAP-positive astrocytes (red). The number and intensity of immunoreactivity of microglia and astrocytes increased following LPS treatment (d and e) compared with that observed in the Con group (a and b) and was suppressed by Pls (g and h). They did not merge with each other (right column). PyCL: pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Scale bar: 100 μm. B, A summary of LPS-induced increases in the numbers of microglia (left) and astrocytes (right) and suppression by Pls (each bar, n = 8). **, P <0.01. Con, control; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; i.p., intraperitoneal; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; Pls, plasmalogens.