Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) upregulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and downregulates microRNA (miR)-181c expression in BV-2 cells. (A) BV-2 cells were exposed to OGD for 3 hours. The miRNA was isolated, and the expression profiles of OGD-activated BV-2 cells were compared with those of resting cells. A heat map of the 26 differentially expressed miRNAs (9 upregulated and 17 downregulated) is shown. (B) Alignment of the predicted miRNA binding sites in the 3′-UTR of the TNF-α mRNA. (C) Relative expression levels of BV-2 TNF-α mRNA and miR-181c at different time points after OGD treatment. Control cells were not subjected to OGD (0 hours). The results are presented as the mean ± SE from three independent experiments. ‘Ctrl’ (control) represents the control microglial cells that were not subjected to OGD treatment.