Intraperitoneal infusion of LPS also elevates tissue level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RVLM. Left panels: Time-course changes in tissue level of TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 in RVLM after intraperitoneal infusion of saline or LPS (1.2 mg/kg/day), alone or with additional intracisternal infusion of NS398 (1.5 nmol/μL/h). Right panels: Tissue level of the proinflammatory cytokines in RVLM measured on day 7 after intraperitoneal LPS infusion, with additional intracisternal infusion of tempol (1 μmol/μL/h) or aCSF. Values are mean ± SEM (n=8 to 10 animals in each experimental group). *P <0.05 vs. corresponding saline-treatment group; #
P <0.05 vs. corresponding LPS-treatment group in the post hoc Scheffé multiple-range test.