Intraperitoneal infusion of LPS induces neuroinflammation-associated oxidative stress in RVLM. Representative photomicrographs showing the distribution of dihydroethidium (red fluorescence) (A), or changes in tissue level of superoxide (B) in RVLM examined on day 7 after intraperitoneal infusion of saline or LPS (1.2 mg/kg/day), alone or with additional intracisternal infusion of minocycline (9 nmol/μL/h), pentoxifylline (PTX, 30 nmol/μL/h), NS398 (1.5 nmol/μL/h), or tempol (1 μmol/μL/h). Values are mean ± SEM (n=8 to 10 animals in each experimental group). *P <0.05 vs. saline-treatment group; #
P <0.05 vs. LPS-treatment group in the post hoc Scheffé multiple-range test. A schematic drawing of rostral medulla oblongata is included in (A) to illustrate the location of RVLM from where the photomicrographs were taken. NA, nucleus ambiguous; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarii; V, nucleus spinalis trigemini. Scale bar in (A): 100 μm.