Effects of IL-1β administration on Th17 and Th1 responses in TMEV-infected B6 mice. (A) Levels of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells in B6 mice intraperitoneally treated with PBS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or IL-1β during the early stage (−1 and 3 days post-infection (dpi)) of Theiler’s murine encephalitis virus (TMEV) infection (three mice per group) were analyzed using flow cytometry of the pooled central nervous system (CNS) cells at 8 dpi after stimulation with either PBS or anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. (B) The overall numbers of IL-17-producing cells in the CNS of the above treated B6 mice (three mice per group) were shown. (C) Levels of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells in the CNS of these groups of mice were also similarly analyzed. ***P < 0.001.