Quantification of apoptosis following BCL by terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activator protein (AP)-1 expression in retinas injected with chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (Ccl)2 small interfering (si)RNA. (A–D) Representative images from the superior mid-periphery show TUNEL (red) for nuclei situated predominantly in the ONL in the siRNA treatment groups following BCL exposure. E: Animals injected with Ccl2 siRNA found a marked decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (85.1, P < 0.05; ANOVA/Tukey’s test) compared with the Invivofectamine-only group and the scrambled siRNA control group after 24 hours of BCL (263.8 and 250.1 respectively). (F) Expression of AP-1 in the retina following BCL was reduced to 14.1-fold in retinas injected with Ccl2 siRNA (P < 0.05), compared with 20.5-fold and 24.9-fold reduction in the Invivofectamine-only group and the scrambled siRNA control group, respectively. Inivofectamine-only (n = 8), scrambled siRNA (n = 8), Ccl2 siRNA (n = 6) Error bars represent SEM. *Significant change at P <0.05 using ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. NS, not significant.