Effect of neuronal LPS signaling on endothelial adhesion molecules expression. Endothelial primary cultures were treated with LPS (10 ng/ml), conditioned medium of untreated (C Neu CM) or LPS-treated (LPS Neu CM) neuronal cultures, in the absence or the presence of VIPER (2 μM). Cells were imaged for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression by immunocytochemistry (a). Arrows show increased cellular expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Cell lysates were assayed for ICAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 expression (b) by ELISA. Data are presented as mean ± SD of three independent experiments carried out on separate cultures. **P <0.01, ***P <0.001, LPS-treated versus untreated cultures, #P <0.05, ###P <0.001, LPS + VIPER versus LPS alone, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison post-hoc test. ANOVA, analysis of variance; ICAM-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule.