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Table 1 Effect of LPS on cytokines and chemokines expression in mixed glial and neuronal cultures

From: Neuronal toll-like receptor 4 signaling induces brain endothelial activation and neutrophil transmigration in vitro

A) Mixed glial cultures
  TNFα RANTES KC IL-6 IL-1α IL-1β G-CSF
Untreated 11 ± 9 122 ± 44 29 ± 10 14 ± 4 7 ± 3 6 ± 5 10 ± 12
LPS-treated 5,673 ± 468*** 7,805 ± 679*** 3,974 ± 547*** 28,945 ± 837*** 36.7 ± 9.4*** 98.5 ± 50.7*** 4,283 ± 832***
B) Neuronal cultures
  TNFα RANTES KC IL-6 IL-1α IL-1β G-CSF
Untreated 19 ± 16 20 ± 4 2 ± 4 7 ± 2 13 ± 3 13 ± 4 21 ± 6
LPS-treated 85 ± 12** 414 ± 42*** 549 ± 89*** 70 ± 12*** 13 ± 4 14 ± 3 38 ± 3**
  1. Mixed glial (A) and neuronal (B) primary cultures were treated with LPS (100 ng/ml) for 24 hours, and culture supernatants were assayed for various cytokines and chemokines by CBA analysis. Data are presented as mean ± SD of three independent experiments carried out on separate cultures. **P <0.01, ***P <0.001, LPS-treated versus untreated cultures, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison post-hoc test. ANOVA, analysis of variance; CBA, cytometric bead array; G-CSF, colony stimulating factor; KC, CXCL1; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; RANTES, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-α.