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Table 1 Important inflammatory mediators in TBI

From: New perspectives on central and peripheral immune responses to acute traumatic brain injury

Chemokines/ cytokines Functions Reference
CCL2 Macrophage infiltration Striling et. al. , 2004 [42]
CCL20 Inflammatory activator and immune cell attraction Helmy et. al. , 2010 [43]; Comerford et al., 2010 [44]; Das et. al. , 2011 [45]
CCL21 Neuromodulatory Biber et. al. , 2002 [46]; de Jong et. al. , 2005 [47]
IL-1 Neuronal injury Rothwell, 1999 [48]
IL-6 BBB dysfunction, neuroprotection Kossmannet.al, 1995 [49]; Penkowa et.al., 2003 [50]
IL10 Neuroprotective Kremlev and Palmer, 2005 [51]
TNF-α BBB breakdown, Kim et. al. , 1992 [52]
Cerebral inflammation, Ramilo et. al. , 1990 [53]
IL-8 Neutrophil infiltration Whalen et. al. , 2000 [54]