Model depicting the interplay among HIV-1-induced proinflammatory products, neurotoxicity, and neuroprotection by bryostatin. Proinflammatory products, including CXCL10, MCP-1 and TNF-α released from HIV-1-infected macrophages or microglia also activate astrocytes and microglia. CXCL10 in combination with HIV-1 induce neurotoxicity and chemotaxis of activated monocytes and T-cells. Bryostatin inhibits CXCL10- and HIV-1 induced neurotoxicity, and attenuates chemotaxis of monocytes and T-cells by regulating chemokines/cytokines expression in HIV-infected- or –uninfected- activated macrophages, microglia, astrocytes or T-cells. MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein.