HIV-1-infected macrophages and lymphocytes induced CXCL10, MCP-1, and TNF-α. (A) Primary human macrophages were mock-infected or infected with HIV-1 B-aL (100 ng/ml p24). Supernatants collected on the day 14 and 16 post-infection were analyzed for cytokine/chemokine profile. Upper panel shows immunostaining for viral p24 antigen (red) in HIV-1-infected but not -uninfected (control) macrophages at 16 days post infection. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). (B) Jurkat cells were co-treated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) and either wild-type HIV-1 NLENG1 (wt) or integrase-defective mutant HIV-1 (M) particles for 48 h. Supernatants collected at 48 h after treatment were analyzed for CXCL10 production by ELISA. Upper panel shows GFP expression in HIV-1-infected but not uninfected Jurkat cells. DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein.